Grape size and grain are the main problems of grapes. Most of the domestic vineyards occur. After fruit setting, the fruit size is uneven, and the large size is small, which seriously affects the grape yield, quality, sales price and income of the fruit farmers. There are many reasons for the size and size of the grapes, and the performance is not the same. According to the situation of the orchard, the symptomatic treatment can be solved.
1. What is the size of the grape?
Grape size granules, the so-called large granules refer to normal granules, small granules are smaller than normal granules, like peanuts or soybean granules, and there are usually no seeds in the granules, and they are first colored. If the granules are large or small, the product value will be greatly reduced.
The performance of grape-sized granules usually occurs in pieces.
2, the production of large and small particles have the following conditions
Many grape growers are confused about the size of the grain. There are many reasons for the size and size of the grapes, and the performance is not the same. According to the situation of the orchard, the symptomatic treatment can be solved. There are several main situations in size and size:
1, variety reasons
Individual varieties such as Jufeng, Victoria, Jingya and other varieties, natural pollination is bad, of course, the size of the grain. This size granule generally has a small number of seeds or no seeds.
The variety can be changed or denuclearized. After treatment, all the fruit pieces have no seeds. After the expansion, the size of the fruit pieces is uniform.
2, boron deficiency
The lack of boron in the grapes leads to difficulty in prolonging the pollen tubes, and the ovules are difficult to fertilize and cannot form seeds. The size of the grain caused by boron deficiency, generally small fruit without seeds or only one seed, the flower cap is not easy to fall, the fruit is less, the orchard is seriously deficient in boron, and the leaves may have watermelon-like leaves or spots on the sun. Slow growth and slow growth of new shoots.
The boron-deficient grape is best sprayed with 1500 times solution of boron in the leaves after harvesting, and the orchard with severe boron deficiency can be used twice in 10 days or 200 to 500 grams in the soil, or in the separation period of the grape inflorescence. The leaves are sprayed with 1500-2000 times of boron-protected boron 1 to 2 times.
3, zinc deficiency
The grape is deficient in zinc, the auxin is insufficiently synthesized, the growth is slow, the fruit is less, the flower cap is not easy to fall, and the size is small. Large and small granules caused by zinc deficiency, when ripe, large and small granules can be colored normally, and some small granules may also have seeds.
In the zinc-deficient orchard, zinc fertilizer such as zinc-calcium amino acid may be sprayed on the foliar surface 15 days before fruit picking, or 300 times of zinc-calcium amino acid may be sprayed 2 to 3 times before and after flowering.
4, bad weather during flowering
The low temperature and rainy weather or the hot and dry weather during the flowering period can cause poor powdering, less fruit, and large size. The size of the grain formed by the weather factor, the dumbbell-shaped ear can be seen in the field. Low temperature and rainy rain are more common in the southern regions; in the north, many fruit farmers are worried that the fruit setting is not good, and they dare not water the flowers before flowering. Once they encounter high temperature weather, there will be a lot of fruit drop phenomenon.
There is no way to change the low temperature and rain, and the high temperature and drought can be alleviated by proper watering before flowering. Once the size has been formed, consider discarding the first capsule and leaving the second capsule. If the local weather is not conducive to pollination and fruiting, it can be considered to carry out denuclear cultivation.
5, improper administration of hormones
Improper administration of hormones is generally divided into several periods. In the first period, when some varieties are inflorescences, the application of gibberellic acid is too late, which affects pollination. The fruit is as big as a matchstick and will not fall into maturity; the second The period is flowering period. There are many orchards. In the flowering period, the fruit-bearing medicines controlled by growth are used. The improper application causes poor pollination, the fruit is small, the string is tight, the fruit grains do not expand normally, and some also show cob thickening, etc.; After the Xiehua period, many fruit farmers applied premature hormones too early, causing seed abortion, seed coat, black, empty shell, this fruit is significantly smaller than normal fruit.
In the above case, when hormone administration is not well understood, hormones should be used as little or as little as possible.
6, Wang Chang
The large and small grains caused by Wangchang are characterized by thick branches and long sections, some of which also show indistact inflorescences, abnormal flower buds, etc. Large seeds have seeds, especially large, small grains are small, and there are few fruit sets. The size and size caused by Wangchang is related to the growth of the branches in the previous year. The last year was prosperous, resulting in poor flower bud differentiation. In the same year, the long branches will also appear in the next year.
For the long orchard, the first is to control the application of nitrogen fertilizer, less watering, and control soil drought. For the long branches, advance bows, early picking, twisting branches, or ring cutting, etc., when the winter is pruned, the long branches are more buds. Only when the year is well controlled, there will be no size in the next year.
7, the weak
Some orchards, yellow and germinated after the germination, are also yellow, with fewer fruit, large and small granules, some of which are still yellow next year, and are also large and small. This orchard is often caused by high yields in the previous year, damage to fertilizers, accumulation of water in the later stages, large number of roots in winter and spring, and premature defoliation caused by downy mildew.
After germination, the orchard has a weak root system, which is not easy to fertilize and water. It should be sprayed with zinc-calcium amino acid 300 times solution + urea 400 times solution + potassium dihydrogen phosphate 800 times solution at intervals of 2 days. 3 to 5 times, the first is to restore the nutrition of the leaves, in order to promote root growth, loose soil ventilation, improve ground temperature is conducive to root growth. If the big fat water, the soil temperature is low, but it will not inhibit the growth and absorption of the root system, the tree part will be more yellow.
8, the output is too high
If the yield is too high, the size of the grain will be mature. The large grain will be colored first, the first will be red, and the small grain will be green and the flower string. This is often caused by excessive fruit retention, excessive branches, and insufficient effective leaves.
Reasonable yield and branch density, good field management, reasonable branching, and scientific and rational fertilizer and water management can avoid this situation.
9. Viral infection or tree degradation
For individual tetraploid species such as Kyoho, it is easy to appear tree degradation, or grape damaged by virus disease, the tree is weak, and the ear is undernourished. This kind of grape is mostly expressed in the fact that there are only a few trees, one or two trees or three or five trees in the field, the same fertilization and watering, the result is small, the size of the grain, and it is the same year.
For this kind of tree, there is no reserved value, you can dig up the replanting.
In summary, there are many reasons for size and size, and the symptoms are not the same. It is necessary to solve the problem according to the situation of each orchard, instead of blindly learning the treatment of others.
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